sexta-feira, 22 de janeiro de 2010

Beirada do precipício...

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Crise da teoria econômica: modelo de fluxo com mega obras e impactos ambientais insuportavelmente ameaçadores em todos os cantos do mundo, no momento em que estamos na beira exígua do precipício. Mais um dos n exemplos dessa horrenda história humana na Terra. Expansão agrícola sem respeitar a continuidade dos serviços ecológicos e da água, consumo nada saudável e cruel para os animais de carne e leite, produção de carros, construção infrene, ao invés de cortar desperdício de energia, mais usinas hidrelétricas e nuclear no Nordeste... Só vamos parar nossa insanidade quando formos realmente forçados a isso?


Indonesia Growth Curbed By Rice Paddies as China Builds Roads
2010-01-19 20:13:46.92 GMT


By Daniel Ten Kate and Achmad Sukarsono
Jan. 20 (Bloomberg) -- The unfinished six-lane highway ends five minutes’ walk from Nur Salim’s rice paddy in Java, Indonesia. The road, part of a commercial artery through the world’s most populated island, is stalled because the farmer wants more money for a plot the size of a tennis court.
“We’re going to fight to the end,” Salim, a 55-year-old goatherd, said in his dimly lit wooden house. “We have no deadline.”
President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono campaigned for re- election in July on a pledge to double spending on roads, rails and ports to $140 billion over the next five years, part of a push to deliver economic growth of at least 6.6 percent.
He has a ways to go. During his first five-year term, only
125 kilometers (78 miles) of toll roads were built, compared with China’s 4,719 kilometers of toll roads last year alone. He hasn’t exercised his authority to confiscate land, a power only the president has.
Aging ports and railways add to Indonesia’s transport woes, while power cuts in urban areas crimp growth, the government’s statistics agency says.
Failure to jumpstart construction risks the gains that have made Indonesian stocks the best performers in Asia. The Jakarta Composite Index has risen 137 percent in the past 12 months in dollar terms, while the MSCI Asia Pacific Index rose 47 percent.
Higher costs caused by inadequate transport may also threaten Indonesia’s position as the world’s largest exporter of power-station coal and tin and the second-biggest exporter of palm oil.

Draft Law

The highway across an island of about 140 million people, one of Indonesia’s more than 17,000 islands, is stalled because a 1961 law says that only the president can seize land if owners refuse to sell. Yudhoyono’s administration is drafting a new law to make seizures easier.
Indonesia, the third-fastest growing economy in the Group of 20 last year, ranked 96th in terms of infrastructure quality of 133 states in the World Economic Forum’s 2009 Global Competitiveness Index. China was 46th and India 76th.
Inadequate roads, ports and railways mean orange juice from the Indonesian side of Borneo costs more than that from China, four times as far away, according to Zaldy Ilham Masita, chairman of the Indonesia Logistics Association in Jakarta.
“Companies come here because they see a huge market that will buy their goods, but they don’t intend to make Indonesia a production center because of the high logistics costs,” Masita said in a telephone interview.

More Than Thailand

Logistics costs are the equivalent of 25 percent of gross domestic product in Indonesia, versus 19 percent in Thailand and 10 percent in the U.S., says the association.
“We have been screaming about this infrastructure problem for years,” said Iskandar Zulkarnain, president of shipping company PT Internusa Hasta Buana in Jakarta, the capital.
For General Electric Co., the infrastructure shortfalls represent an opportunity to finance and supply power plants, railways and hospitals in Indonesia.
“There’s no doubt that infrastructure is very much required,” said David Utama, 44, Indonesia head for Fairfield, Connecticut-based GE. Investment will be “explosive” if the government succeeds, he said.

Capacity Ports

Jakarta’s Tanjung Priok port, the largest of the country’s more than 2,000 seaports, will soon reach capacity, the World Bank says. A 180-kilometer railroad from Bandung, Java’s third- largest city, stops one kilometer short of the main port.
Container trucks can take all day to move 12 kilometers to the nearest highway, according to the American Chamber of Commerce.
The Trans-Java Expressway, spanning the same distance as from New York to Chicago, has been hobbled by land acquisition difficulties since its conception in 1988. More than half the land for the 1,192-kilometer highway, about a quarter of which has been built, hasn’t been obtained, according to the Public Works Ministry.
“The existing laws haven’t been able to tackle the problems,” said Nurdin Manurung, head of the Indonesia Toll Road Authority at the Public Works Ministry, in an interview.
In the draft law, land for a project approved after public consultation would be transferred to the government, with owner compensation determined by an independent appraiser.
“Even in an extreme situation, where everyone wants to go to court, projects will go forward” under the new law, said Frans Sunito, president director of Jakarta-based PT Jasa Marga, Indonesia’s state-owned toll road operator.

Backhoes and Bulldozers

That would affect Salim, whose rice paddies lie in a 76- kilometer stretch in the middle of the planned expressway from Semarang to Solo. A few hundred meters away, backhoes and bulldozers level the reddish earth and local residents break rocks to sell as building rubble.
Salim said government officials didn’t properly value his land and haven’t contacted him for six months. He said he would accept 350,000 rupiah ($37.51) per square meter for his 200 square meter (2,153 square foot) plot, 50,000 rupiah a meter more than he was offered.
“How can they call this a negotiation?” said Salim, who voted for Yudhoyono twice and opposes any efforts to change the land law. “We are ready to sacrifice our land only if the process is transparent and the price is right.”

To contact the reporter on this story:
Daniel Ten Kate in Bangkok at +662-654-7318 or dtenkate@bloomberg.net; Achmad Sukarsono in Jakarta at +62-21-2355-3023 or asukarsono@bloomberg.net

To contact the editor responsible for this story:
Bill Austin at +81-3-3201-8952 or
billaustin@bloomberg.net

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